Top 8 Python frameworks for web development

Python code

Top 8 Python frameworks for web development

Python, one of the most popular programming languages in recent years, is now on a rapid upward movement. It’s used by industry giants like Google or Netflix. In the last five years, Python has grown by around 19% and is expected to overtake Java and C# soon. It wouldn’t have been possible without Python frameworks for development which make developers’ lives much easier. Python frameworks automate the implementation of redundant tasks and, in consequence, cut development time. Also, they enable developers to focus on application logic rather than routine elements. Let’s explain what the best Python web frameworks are.

What is the Python web framework?

Simply speaking, a Python web framework is a collection of packages that enable developers to write web applications. They help with interpreting requests, producing responses, and storing data persistently. When you use frameworks, you don’t have to worry about low-level details (sockets, multiple protocols, thread management). Python frameworks give developers (but also system administrators and web designers) a structure for app development and provide them with fast, reliable, and easy-to-maintain patterns in web apps. Also, they automate many common solutions which is extremely convenient; thus, they diminish the coding time and enable developers to be more focused. Frameworks are more complex than libraries and they contain the basic flow, the rest is built by the user (while libraries perform specific operations).

Why use Python frameworks?

Web frameworks enable you to reuse the code for common HTTP operations. They structure the code so that it’s much easier to both build and maintain the application. If chosen correctly, the framework should perfectly fit your project, running on required web servers, handling vast amounts of traffic, and supporting all necessary features.

What frameworks does Python use?

There are two main types of Python frameworks: 

  • Full-stack frameworks are a one-stop solution for all developer requirements. They give full support to developers including basic components (form validation, template layouts, etc.).
  • Microframeworks – lightweight frameworks that don’t offer any extra functionalities. Features usually need to be added manually. Developers who want to use microframeworks must put some effort into forming the code.

Popular Python frameworks for web development in 2022

There are dozens of Python frameworks out there, but let’s focus on the 8 most important ones to use in 2022.

Django

For thousands of developers, Django is the best Python web framework. It is called a framework for perfectionists with deadlines. It enables you to build better web applications in less time and with less code. The framework was first developed for content management systems but now, it is used by companies like Mozilla, Pinterest, or Instagram for many kinds of web apps. It’s a free and open-source full-stack framework that follows the DRY principle. It uses its ORM (object-relational mapper) to map objects to database tables. Django has a huge number of functionalities (e.g., authentication, URL routing, template engine) that allow developers to make web development much easier. It partially supports asynchronous request handling. On top of that, it comes with extensive documentation and amazing community support. Django is perfect for your project if you want to develop a complex modern web app.

Flask

The most popular among Python microframeworks. It’s light, adaptable, and has a modular design. Flask is open-source and accessible under the BSD license. It’s been used for famous companies like LinkedIn; however, it’s best suited for small and easy projects. Flask has a built-in development server and HTTP request processing. Since 2.0, it supports asynchronous request handling. Thanks to its request processor and router by default, the framework is more adaptable than e.g., Django. It allows us to build a genuine app foundation and database tables. It’s compatible with Google App Engine. Flask is mainly used in creating open apps when developing backend systems. For example, it was used to build the Netflix video service app.

Pyramid

Another full-stack framework was created to build apps of any complexity quickly and easily. The popularity of Pyramid has been growing recently, mainly because it’s very flexible and allows developers to create basic applications via a minimalistic approach. It has been used by companies like Yelp or DropBox. Pyramid is a very convenient framework for working with static assets. It offers extensive testing support and offers a wide range of flexible tools for app development. Among its features, you will also find quality measurement, security management, templating, and HTML structure generation.

FastAPI

Currently, the most popular asynchronous web development framework that has recently been gaining momentum. It’s modern, fast, and robust. It uses type hints and models HTTP requests as user-defined Python objects, also it makes it really easy to build a GraphQL API. FastAPI is OpenAPI – oriented. It enables developers to simply declare relevant dependencies in the path operation functions that are assigned to the API endpoints. The framework is currently used by companies like Uber or Microsoft. It works excellent for building fast web apps and Rest APIs.

CherryPy

The oldest popular Python microframework. It’s also one of the quickest and most stable ones. CherryPy provides many built-in plugins and a powerful configuration system. It’s open-source and can run on any working framework that supports Python. CherryPy embeds its own multi-hung server. It allows for creating web applications similarly to how you would create any other object-oriented Python program. This microframework allows you to run multiple HTTP servers at once. It has ready-made tools for authentication, encoding, caching, sessions, and static content. It’s suitable for Android app development.

Web2Py

An open-source full-stack Python framework mainly used for fast building secure and highly-scalable applications. It comes with its web-based IDE. This framework has a separate code editor, debugger, and one-click deployment and it can run on different platforms. It can read multiple protocols and is equipped with an error tracking mechanism through an error logging and ticketing system that issues a ticket when a mistake occurs. Web2Py provides many sensible defaults that enable developers to get off the ground quickly. The framework also has in-built components to manage HTTP requests, cookies, reactions, and sessions.

Bottle

A simple, lightweight, and fast microframework for Python. Originally, Bottle was developed for building APIs. The framework has some interesting functionalities like utilities, directing, and templating. It allows developers to work closer to the hardware. With Bottle, you can both build simplistic personal-use applications and sophisticated web interfaces. Additional features of Bottle include WSGI support, plugin support for different databases, adapter support for template engines, as well as an inbuilt HTTP server. The framework is often used by developers who need flexibility and basic functionalities to build simple web apps with 3rd party HTTP/WSGI servers.

TurboGears

A Python framework based on the ObjectDispatch paradigm. It allows developers to build data-driven, ready-to-extend applications in just a few minutes. The framework was designed to overcome the inadequacies of web and mobile application development frameworks. TurboGears supports various databases and web servers. It pursues a Model-View-Controller design and incorporates vigorous formats. It is suitable for both professionals and beginners. 

Web application development using Python – pros and cons

In the last few years, Python app development has been climbing to new heights of popularity. It is now one of the most popular programming languages in the world. Why is Python good for web development, then?

  1. It is easy to use and read. Python’s syntax is simple so inexperienced developers can learn it quickly. Also, Python allows for good data visualizations that are efficient and easy to comprehend. It offers many plotting libraries for creating informative and customized plots to present data in the most effective way.
  2. Asynchronous coding – there are no deadlocks or research contention or any other confusing issues. Units of code run separately so that you can handle various situations faster.
  3. Fast development – Python is a rapidly developing language that allows for quick prototyping and iterations. 
  4. Rich standard library and ecosystem. There is a huge amount of pre-written code, so you don’t have to waste time creating basic items.
  5. Frameworks that ensure rapid and swift app development.
  6. Server-side scripting speeds up the development process significantly.


And what about the cons of web app development using Python?

  1. There aren’t many experienced Python developers. The popularity of the language has been growing but still, not many expert developers are working with Python.
  2. Lack of a sensible threading model due to locking the Python interpreter (code runner, one per process) to one thread at a time.
  3. Not the first choice for memory-intensive tasks.

Summary

As you can see, Python and Python frameworks will be still in-demand in the coming years. The above-mentioned list can be widely used as a full-stack back-end web app development. Which one are you choosing for your next project? Contact us – we’ll be happy to help!

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